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Project Manager : Project Manager Feb Mar 2013
34 Project Manager 5 6 While reams have been written about PAUL KEATING's orations, his Redfern Speech stands out. Delivered in Redfern Park, Sydney, in 1992, the speech deals with the need for Australia to recognise its substandard treatment of indigenous people. "There should be no mistake about this -- our success in resolving these issues will have a significant bearing on our standing in the world," Keating told the crowd. By asking his audience to accept his argument so that the country is better accepted by other countries around the world, Keating could be accused of using an 'ad populum' fallacy (an appeal to the popular, akin to the child who encourages a friend to throw toilet paper over the neighbour's house "because everyone else is doing it"). On the other hand, Keating was appealing to ethos by urging Australians to resolve these issues so that the Australian character, or Australia's reputation, would be improved. For Aristotle, ethos was the most important appeal (although pathos -- emotion -- was the most persuasive). In 1995, HILLARY CLINTON delivered a speech in Beijing called 'Women's Rights are Human Rights'. She used the address to draw attention to the need for women around the world to be afforded the same rights as men. Key to the success of her speech is her appeal to 'kairos' (or timeliness) -- adjusting the speech, words or argument to suit the climate. Clinton's speech seems bold in a country where a one-child policy had created a culture in which females were not as highly valued as males, but it was a masterpiece of kairos. "It was delivered at a time when the global community was 'sold' on the idea of women's rights and when China was opening its borders and looking for ways to build constructive relationships with the West," says Miller. "It was actually the perfect time to argue for progressive women's rights in a patriarchal, conservative society." Adequate preparation before the exchange is also key to successful persuasion. "You have to understand where that person is coming from and what their concerns are, a nd prepare accordingly." Danielle Di-Masi is the Australian Graduate School of Management's resident business etiquette expert. She agrees preparation and research are critical to successfully persuading someone. "Research who you are dealing with and understand the other person's needs so you both walk away happy." But she warns against trying to in uence someone in a manipulative way. "If you withhold infor mation when you're trying to persuade someone, they will generally nd out. So you might get some short-term bene t but you will damage your relationship with that person and possibly others in the longer term. "To be e ective when negotiating, you need to be ethical." Chalmers adds: "At the end of the day, good communication is not complicated. If you take the time to listen, build good relationships and understa nd who you are trying to in uence, you will develop a competitive advantage in the workplace." ••• TO BE EFFECTIVE WHEN NEGOTIATING, YOU NEED TO BE ETHICAL •CAREER CENTRE
Project Manager Dec Jan 2013
Project Manager Apr May 2013