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Project Manager : Project Manager Oct Nov 2011
www.aipm.com.au Project Manager 29 HIsTorY • Focus on project design and testing There was increased awareness of the importance of the project design process, and moves to establish greater design accountability for overall project efficiency and effectiveness. Morris said: “The aim is an orderly progressing of the project’s design and technical basis through a sequence of review stages, the level of detail becoming progressively higher as the project progresses, with strict control of technical interfaces and over any proposed changes (through Configuration Management/Change Control).” Testing of the design was also seen as increasingly important. “Software development methodologies have system testing – verification and validation – as an integral part of the project management process. Prototyping, a form of product testing, has become accepted practice where technological uncertainty exists,” added Morris. Introducing simultaneous/ concurrent engineering ‘Simultaneous’ or ‘concurrent’ engineering is a methodology which is a robust approach to expediting the achievement of shorter product life cycles. It involves dedicated multi-disciplinar y teams whose members are immediately and continuously involved in all the phases of the project, from initiation to completion. Cleland described simultaneous engineering as “an integrated approach to the systematic, concurrent design of products and their related processes including manufacturing, procurement, marketing, quality, and customer service and support. “The basic idea behind simultaneous engineering is that the entire life of the product should be considered concurrently in its original design by all of the specialists working together to bring about a coordinated product and process design.” From one-size-fits-all to contingency approaches By the mid-1990s, Aaron Shenhar began publishing and presenting a series of papers that refuted the position that project management tools, techniques etc applied to most projects most of the time. His first paper, ‘A project is not a project is not a project: A contingent project management framework’, stated: “Our proposition ... is that project management styles and practices differ with the specific kind of project and that management attitudes must be adapted to the proper project type.” This, of course, reflects the real-world situation that many of us who had managed different types of projects in different application areas knew all too well. ( hIghlIghts 1 The 1990s saw increased focus on project design management, testing of design, and prototyping; and also substantial developments in simultaneous and concurrent engineering. 2 There was substantially increased focus on identifying and managing project stakeholders. 3 Much more attention was given to organisational strategy being implemented by projects. 4The 1990s saw the beginning of moves from one-size-fits-all assumptions about projects towards more contingent approaches. 5 Discussions in the literature started to move from the management of individual projects towards the management of multiple simultaneous projects. 6Strategic alliances were becoming increasingly common in the project management world. 7 There were very substantial movements in the development of project management bodies of knowledge and competency standards in many countries, and accreditation/registration processes based thereon. «the rAte of chAnge In technology And the MArketPlAce creAted strAIns uPon exIstIng orgAnIsAtIonAl forMs»
Project Manager Aug Sep 2011
Project Manager Dec Jan 2012