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Project Manager : June July 2011
31 www.aipm.com.au Project Manager 1976 The Project Managers Forum is formed in Australia. 1975 PROMPTII methodology is created by Simpact Systems Ltd. HISTORY • A proliferation of failed or substandard major projects in the 1970s included the US Supersonic Transport program The assertion that project management derives from (Cleland & King), or is identical with, systems management (Kerzner) may have been valid if project management had been initiated only in the defence and aerospace industries. However, project management also had separate and distinct origins in the construction industry, where its development owed little, if anything, to systems management. Kerzner also equates project management with matrix management, and this is similarly problematic. Other project organisational forms have been successfully used in the construction industry. Evolution of project tools and approaches The 1970s appeared to be largely a decade of consolidation of some of the project ( HIGHLIGHTS 1 The project office and matrix organisations predominated in the literature. This period saw consolidation of project planning tools, including CPM and PDM. The US DoD increased focus on C/ SCSC, design-to-cost, life- cycle costing and front-end project definition. 2 Construction management approaches were endorsed by the influential US General Services Administration. 3 Project management approaches spread to many industries (over 20 in USA). Additionally, this was accompanied by a much greater awareness of the importance of environmental and other external factors to project success. 4In practice, there was a proliferation of failed or substandard major projects in this period, partly attributable to lack of recognition of, and response to, important external factors. 5 With regard to movements towards professionalising project management, the associations/institutes IPMA and PMI, which formed in the 1960s, prospered. PMF was formed in Australia, and US DoD established its Defense Systems Management College. In the 1970s, construction managers increasingly employed classic project management tasks of preparation of budgets and detailed schedules, progress supervision and change control
April May 2011
Project Manager Aug Sep 2011