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Project Manager : April May 2011
Project Manager 30 • hiStory Polaris (the Submarine- Launched Ballistic Missile)4 . However, there were problems with PERT. “PERT probably did some good as far as planning and scheduling is concerned ... but both the Navy and Lockheed, as the missile systems integrator, failed to recognise the area of greatest payoff: integrating the schedules of the many contractors,” said academic Russell Archibald1 . Following the release of the DoD and NASA guide: PERT cost systems design, representatives of defence contractors across the US met and formed the PERT/COST Coordinating Council – but the net result was a negative reaction. “In the mid-1960s there was such a negative reaction by defence contractors to the ‘onerous’ requirements of PERT/Cost that the whole concept of network planning and critical path scheduling was almost killed off, at least in the defence industry,” added Archibald. professionalisation of project management The two major professional project management bodies, one European and the other North American, were 1 Archibald, Russell D (1987). ‘ Key Milestones in the Early PERT/CPM/ PDM Days’. Project Management Journal. 2 Fondahl, John W (1987). ‘ Precedence Diagramming Methods: Origins and Early Development’. Project Management Journal. 3 Fondahl, John W (1961). ‘A Non-Computer Approach to the Critical Path Method for the Construction Industry’. Technical Report No.9, Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University. 4 Kelley, James E Jr & Morgan R Walker (1989). ‘T he Origins of CPM: A Personal History’. P M NE Twork. 5 Morris, Peter W G (1994). The Management of Projects. 6 Snyder, James R (1987). ‘ Modern Project Management: How Did We Get Here – Where Do We Go?’ Project Management Journal. «there was such a negative reaction by defence contractors ... that the whole concept of network planning and critical path scheduling was almost killed off» highlights 1 Project cost management (and associated project resource scheduling) was added to project time management as a distinctive technique, and integration of the two was proceeding. 2 The net effect of a decade of focus on network techniques was that project management was closely identified with, and for some was synonymous with, the use of network techniques for project planning, scheduling and controlling. 3 Project management was still primarily identified with the construction, defence and aerospace industries – but that was beginning to change. 4Professional project management bodies were formed independently in Europe and North America. established in the 1960s. International Project Management Association (IPMA), formerly known as INTERNET, had its origins in a meeting in Vienna in 1967, and originally provided a forum for European network planning practitioners to exchange knowledge and experience. It is now essentially an ‘umbrella’ organisation, covering a multitude of national project management associations, mainly European, but with increasingly substantial membership from outside Europe. North America’s Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed in 1969, with the overall objective of advancing the state of the art in project management. It is now a large organisation, with innumerable chapters throughout the world. program evaluation review Technique (perT) was promoted by the Us navy during construction of the polaris missile GETTYIMAGES
June July 2011