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Project Manager : April May 2011
29 www.aipm.com.au Project Manager construction of the sydney opera house in the 1960s by civil & civic 1969 North America’s Project Manage- ment Institute (PMI) is formed. hiStory • 1959 Eastern Joint Computer Conference in Boston in December. Maunchly’s push into the commercial market was ultimately successful, particularly in the construction industry. “Due to the active efforts of the early consulting firms in the field and the contract specifications by government agencies for its use, arrow diagramming, at an early date, became the ‘standard’ method in the US ... the arrow diagram had been considered a necessity for computer methods, and alternative methods as suitable for manual applications only. With the introduction of computer programs based on precedence diagramming this began to change,” stated Civil Engineering Professor Emeritus John Fondahl2. The earliest extension to CPM was resource levelling, which Kelley & Walker described as “perhaps the key unsolved technical problem when we started up Maunchly Associates”. They developed Resources Planning and Scheduling Method (RPSM), while the Corporation for Economic and Industrial Research developed Resource Allocation and Multi Project Scheduling (RAMPS). Integration of cost control into network scheduling was also proceeding for all three network types at this time. “By the mid to late 60s cost control, resource scheduling, the identification of ‘problems’ and the merger of PERT/CPM into ‘project management’ were well underway,” stated James Snyder, founder of the Project Management Institute6. developments in australia To the best of my knowledge, Civil & Civic pioneered the use of network techniques in Australia. When Civil & Civic acquired a copy of Fondahl’s pioneering 1961 report on his non-computer approach (subsequently called PDM)3, the planners in the construction company’s design department immediately began using PDM. They found precedence networks more user-friendly than arrow diagrams for planning in that environment. From the late 1960s there was a concerted push by many government agencies and authorities in Australia to have contractors in the building and construction industry produce and upgrade computer-processed arrow diagrams on government- funded contracts. However, in the longer term, events overran arrow diagrams and PDM became a virtual standard in Australia. promotion of perT According to Kelley and Walker, the main cause of phenomenal short-term growth in the use of network methods was the promotion of Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) by the US Navy and its imposition on contractors developing ( PHOTO BY VALENVTIN SOWADA WWW.YESTERDAYSIMAGES.ORG.AU
June July 2011