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Project Manager : April May 2011
Project Manager 28 1960’s 1963 Arrow diagramming is replaced by precedence networks on construction projects at Civil & Civic. 1965 The Apollo Program Development Plan is formed. It includes sections specifying procedures for scheduling, procurement, data management, configuration management, logistics, funds and manpower and systems engineering. For many, the program became the paradigm of modern project management5. 1962 Civil & Civic developed its first Critical Path Method (arrow diagram) network to support a tender, and subsequently arrow diagrams were increasingly used on the company’s building construction projects. 1960 The arrival of Robert McNamara as US Secretary of Defense initiated a period of centralisation of defense planning and authority5. He introduced The Five Year Defense Plan, The Planning, Programming, Budgeting System (PPBS), systems analysis and life cycle costing. Perhaps the most interesting contribution of the decade on project organisation came from the construction industry. “The change to recognising the project manager role and having someone in that position full time through the life of the job has not always been an easy one,” said Stephen Bechtel, President of Bechtel Corporation, referring to problems in getting divisions to shift to a project management approach in the early 1960s. “They [the divisions] were accustomed to having the project engineer be the project manager in the early stages of a job and the construction manager or site superintendent on the latter phase of the work.” In Australia, Civil & Civic, which delivered landmark projects including Stage I of the Sydney Opera House, was in a similar situation. While the organisation assumed the full ‘undivided responsibility’ project management role, it was slower than Bechtel to move from having project engineers manage needs determination and design, and site managers managing Find out why many practices and techniques of modern project management originated in the sixties. By AlAn Stretton, AIPM lIfe fellow projecT managemenT in The 1960s HISTOry 1966 The US Department of Defense (DoD) initiate a two-part Contractor Performance Measurement program. construction. Introduction of the full-time project manager approach was delayed until the 1970s. Uptake of cpm The developers of the Critical Path Method (CPM) in its arrow diagramming form, James Kelley and Morgan Walker, joined John Maunchly to form Maunchly Associates in 1959. This organisation pushed aggressively into the commercial market, with its first public presentation of CPM in a five-day workshop in Philadelphia in November 1959, and a paper to the K GETTYIMAGES
June July 2011